Big Stories 2023 Monkeypox commotion enters RI: Starting from Africa, now global Lifestyle – 3 hours ago

Jakarta, CNBC Indonesia – Monkey pox or mpox is one of the diseases that will cause concern for the Indonesian people throughout 2023. This rare zoonotic disease is a major concern for the public even though the death rate tends to be low, namely 0-16 percent.

According to the official website of the Ministry of Health (Kemenkes RI), monkey pox is a rare zoonotic disease caused by infection with the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae.

Monkey pox was first discovered in 1958, when there was an outbreak of a smallpox-like disease that attacked pet monkeys for research. Meanwhile, the first case of monkey pox that infected humans was first discovered in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

“Since then, cases of monkeypox have infected people in several other Central African and West African countries, such as Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, DR Congo, Gabon, Liberia, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo and Sierra Leone,” he wrote. Ministry of Health, quoted Wednesday (20/12/2023).

However, since 2022, monkey pox will no longer be an endemic disease in Central Africa, because it has been found in many other countries in the world.

The Beginning of the Introduction of Monkey Pox Disease in Indonesia

Photo: A passenger walks in front of monkeypox virus information at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Tangerang near Jakarta, Indonesia. Monkeypox is an infectious disease endemic to the monkeypox virus from Central and West Africa which causes humans to suffer from sores, fever, muscle aches and chills. (Jepayona Delita/Time Publishing via Getty Images)

According to the Indonesian Ministry of Health, the first case of monkey pox in Indonesia occurred in August 2022. The first patient was a 27 year old man who had a history of travel to the Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium and France.

Spokesperson for the Indonesian Ministry of Health, dr. Mohammad Syahril, revealed that the patient only experienced rashes on the palms of his hands and feet and was undergoing self-isolation. Meanwhile, initial symptoms first appeared on August 11 and monkeypox was confirmed on August 18.

2023: Monkeypox Cases Appear Again, All Patients Are Male

In October 2023, the Indonesian Ministry of Health discovered another case of monkey pox in the country, namely on October 13 2023. This first case in 2023 was the eighth case since it was first confirmed in August 2023.

According to the Director General of Disease Prevention and Control, Maxi Rein Rondonuwu, at that time all confirmed cases were found in the DKI Jakarta area.

Seeing the increase in cases, the Indonesian Ministry of Health provided free monkey pox vaccine to 447 people starting Tuesday (24/10/2023). Meanwhile, the vaccine will be prioritized for groups at high risk, especially men who have sex with men (MSM).

On October 30 2023, the total number of monkey pox cases in Indonesia was 27 patients. All of these cases were found in Bandung, West Java; South Tangerang, Tangerang Regency, and Tangerang City, Banten; and DKI Jakarta.

Groups at Risk of Infecting Monkey Pox

Symptoms of monkey pox.  (Ministry of Health Doc)Photo: Symptoms of monkey pox. (Ministry of Health Doc)
Symptoms of monkey pox. (Ministry of Health Doc)

Head of the Indonesian Ministry of Health's Communications and Public Services Bureau, dr. Siti Nadia Tarmizi revealed that all confirmed patients with monkey pox were men with an age range of 18 to 49 years.

“With a history of changing and having many sexual partners and sex with the same sex,” explained Dr. Nadia.

On November 7 2023, Chair of the Monkey Pox Task Force of the Indonesian Doctors Association (PB IDI), Dr. Hanny Nilasari, SpDV revealed that the total number of cases of monkey pox in Indonesia is 35 cases.

Based on data obtained by IDI from the DKI Jakarta Health Service (Dinkes), as many as 28 monkey pox patients experienced accompanying or comorbid diseases. The most common comorbidity experienced by monkey pox patients in DKI Jakarta is HIV, namely ten cases.

“Ten of the 28 people were infected with HIV, then three of the 28 people had related or concurrent syphilis infection, and nine of the 28 patients were infected with both HIV and syphilis,” said Dr. Hanny.

The largest distribution of cases is still identified in DKI Jakarta, especially South Jakarta, namely 20 cases. Meanwhile, the second province that contributed the most cases was West Java with 11 cases and Banten with six cases.

How monkey pox is transmitted

Quoting from the official website of the World Health Organization (WHO), monkey pox can be transmitted to humans through physical contact with infected patients, contaminated objects, or infected animals.

In detail, the following is how monkey pox is transmitted due to contact with humans, animals and contaminated objects.

1. Inter-human

Transmission can occur through face-to-face contact (talking or exhaling), droplets, touching, kissing, or sexual intercourse.

2. Animals

Transmission can occur when hunting, skinning, or cooking infected animals.

3. Objects

Transmission can occur through contaminated bed linen, clothing or needles.

4. Pregnant Women

Pregnant women can transmit the virus that causes monkey pox to their unborn babies.

“Monkey pox can be prevented by avoiding physical contact with someone who is infected. In addition, vaccination can also help prevent infection for people at risk,” wrote WHO.

Monkey Pox Vaccine

To control disease transmission, the Ministry of Health has provided free mpox vaccine since October 2023. Minister of Health Budi stated at that time that the government had ordered a total of 2 thousand doses of monkey pox.

However, because the number of vaccines is limited, new vaccines are given to priority groups who are at high risk, namely men who have sex with men and people living with HIV/Aids.

Vaccines are also still prioritized to be given to risk groups in Jakarta because according to the number of confirmed cases they are dominated by Jakarta.

[Gambas:Video CNBC]

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